Ceramic tiles are slabs of various sizes and thicknesses between 3 and 20 mm, obtained from mixtures of clay, sand and other natural substances formed in the desired dimensions and then cooked at high temperature. Thanks to advanced production and manufacturing technologies are available in a variety almost infinite of sizes, colours, surfaces and decorative effects.
Despite their diversity, tiles can simultaneously perform three different functions:
The word "shading" is a name with which we mean a passage of visible and non-harmonically chromatic gradations. Indicates the difference in pitch of the singles tiles as not homogeneous with each other. In particular, classes have been established within which the various collections of porcelain stoneware tiles are classified.
The class of choice is another parameter that characterizes the supply. Only 1st choice is regulated by rules. In this case, for example, with regard to appearance defects, no more than five defective tiles per hundred are allowed. The other choices (the second, the third, commercial, oven yield, etc.) are of inferior quality and may contain a more defects. As for our 2nd choice they have almost flaws imperceptible that I can also be chipping in the lower part or millimetres measurements slightly different, buying the latter you can have a high margin of savings.
Before ordering a given quantity of tiles, it is necessary to know the extent of the surface to be covered and having established the laying technique and design. Having ascertained these two data, it is necessary to know that:
Ultimately, it is advisable to order a quantity 10/15% more than the extension of the surface from tiling, and it is better to do it in one order as it is possible that at a later time the product is not perfectly homogeneous with the one used previously.
The second choice is material in which small graphics or surface defects can be present such as powders or accentuated veins. All the lots offered are controlled in part by our warehouse workers, to assess whether the defect found is a second choice or higher, if the material is higher will be selected or sent for processing.
Grinding is a process by which the edges of the tiles are perfectly squared create a "natural stone" effect. In this way it is possible to put the tiles side by side or edge by side however with barely perceptible escape joints. It is advisable to always grout the second choice tiles.
In identifying the ideal type of tile for the project we have in mind, it is necessary to evaluate technical and aesthetic aspects. TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS The technical characteristics are those necessary for the material to perform its function adequately and reliably.
They can be divided into some categories, characteristics:
or massive mechanics
or surface mechanics
The format identifies the shape and size of the tile. The most used shapes are the quadrangular ones (square and rectangle), but there are also polygonal ones (hexagons, octagons, etc.) and complex profiles (Moorish, Provencal, etc.). In the current state of technology it is possible to obtain, in principle, any shape. Even the dimensions can vary, from a few centimetres on each side (mosaic) up to one meter.
By surface finish is meant the processing of a piece to obtain certain surface roughness conditions. The natural finish is the most versatile, as the tile does not undergo other processes after firing. The lapped finish increases brilliance and elegance, enhancing the aesthetic value of the material. The bush-hammered finish is a processing carried out with tools such as chisels, drills, etc., which give the material a rustic surface, similar to the rough, the structured solution solves the problem of slipperiness in the presence of water or particular environmental conditions, and is suitable for outdoor use . The tiles with bush-hammered finish ensure a perfect seal of the outdoor floors, while the lapped finish is suitable for floors and walls of the living room and sleeping area. The natural finish, easy to clean, is suitable for any environment, in particular for wall coverings such as bathrooms and kitchens.
Proper cleaning is simply carried out using a dish towel or sponge moistened in a diluted solution of a neutral tile cleaner such as FILA CLEANER following the instructions for use and dilutions indicated on the package by the manufacturer.
Avoid using waxing and / or impregnating products; for large surfaces, the use of washer-dryers is recommended.
• Remove the dust well with suitable brooms, woolen cloths or vacuum cleaners
• Wash with FILA CLEANER (neutral detergent with low residue) in a 1: 200 dilution (a cup in a 5 liter bucket of water) using a damp cloth that will often be rinsed in the solution
If the floor, after any type of washing, shows signs of passage of the rag, wash well with clean water, rinsing often and squeezing the rag well. Never exceed the quantity of detergent to be diluted in water, unless the floor is very dirty and a rinse is provided at the end.
• perform a degreasing wash with FILA PS / 87 in a 1:20 dilution in water (possibly hot as it increases efficiency) followed by a phase of thorough rinsing; or, if a descaling wash is more effective, use FILA DETERDEK in a 1:20 dilution in water (possibly hot as it increases efficiency) followed by a thorough rinse phase
If areas that are not perfectly clean remain, repeat the degreasing and / or descaling wash at higher concentrations. The operator in charge of this maintenance must always carry out a preliminary empirical check on a limited portion of material.
How to eliminate various stains on ceramic materials?
Extraordinary maintenance is an intervention to be done only when stains or halos of various kinds occur, which cannot be eliminated with ordinary routine maintenance. Their removal is obtained through a chemical reaction between the stain and the detergent, so, depending on the nature of the dirt, we can intervene, using a suitable solution as visible in the following table.
(*) These interventions are carried out using a damp sponge or a cloth depending on the extent of the stain, and after maintenance, the floor must be thoroughly rinsed and dried.
Cleaning guide after laying floors and walls The "post-laying" cleaning is used to remove the residues of: grout joints, cement, lime, grout. It is mandatory at the end of the construction site, both for glazed and unglazed tiles. Cleaning should not be performed if the tiled surfaces are very hot (e.g. exposed to the sun in the hottest months), because the action of aggressive chemicals becomes more severe. In summer, do it in the cool hours of the day.
If the grout used is of the cement type, mixed with water
Clean after 4/5 days and within 10 days of grouting
Use an acid-based cleaner
Cement Remover (Faberchimica)
Hmk R63 (Hmk)
Bonaclean (Bonasystems Italia)
Bonadecon - specific for non acid resistant products (Bonasystems Italia)
Follow the instructions given by the manufacturer of the detergent. Test the product on the tiles before use. This applies in particular to honed or polished products. Before cleaning the surfaces must be dampened with water. After cleaning, dry up any remaining liquid (if possible using a wet vacuum cleaner) and rinse thoroughly and several times with water. Soak up any remaining rinsing water with a wet vacuum cleaner or a cloth.
If post-installation cleaning has not been performed correctly, repeat washing after installation as described, if necessary using the same detergents but in higher concentrations.
This type of product must be removed immediately and diligently since these grouts harden very rapidly, even in just a few minutes. Strictly follow the cleaning methods recommended by the grout manufacturer and check if it is effective by performing a cleaning test before grouting the entire floor/wall.
Warning: once it has hardened, grout is very difficult or even impossible to remove. Contact the grout manufacturer.
Due to their particular non-slip, rough or structured textures, non-slip surfaces are more difficult to clean. Therefore pay particular attention to cleaning methods, in particular clean sooner and use motorised brushes
with white and beige discs.